I refer to these two sentences: "The doctrine also breaks from the standard Christian belief that Jesus always was God. He began as a spirit child, perfecting himself later into becoming God in a process also available to humanity in the hereafter."
There is actually quite a nuanced diversity within Mormon thought concerning the three points you mentioned in those two sentences above, and I write to you because I (as a Mormon) certainly don't wish to be lumped into an unnecessary stereotype that confuses what I believe (even if some Mormons believe it), but also because if I were you I would appreciate being notified where my writing could be stronger. The three unsettled points in Mormon thought are listed below:
1. Whether Jesus has always been God or at some point zillions of years ago became God. (I'm one of many Mormons who believes Jesus was always God, and thus strongly object anytime people say it's a "doctrine" or tenet of our faith that it's otherwise. The truth is, there's much speculation that sometimes gets confused as standard doctrine (both within and without the church). There's always room for interpretation, but it is indeed a fact that the title page of The Book of Mormon states that "Jesus is the Christ, the Eternal God". http://lds.org/scriptures/bofm/bofm-title?lang=eng
2. Whether we were born/created as spirit children or whether we were uncreated/pre-existing spirits adopted by God. See, for example, "God, Self, and Spiritual Birth: Two Perspectives" http://www.faithpromotingrumor.com/2011/01/god-self-and-spiritual-birth-two-perspectives/
Many Mormons thus believe that Jesus was uncreated and thus didn't "beg[i]n as a spirit child".
3. What the process of theosis/exaltation means, in terms of becoming LIKE God (or a god) or "becoming God". There are huge ramifications here. Mormons do not (or at least should not) believe that they will somehow supplant God as if we are on the same track as God. While some might believe that, Mormons more often speak of becoming "one" with God. There is not a well defined doctrine, but rather a wide spectrum of Mormon thought in regards to what it means to become "gods" (with a lowercase g) because God (the one and only uppercase "G") through his grace has the power to exalt His children. Clearly, there is a difference between future exalted beings and the Exalted One we will always worship. One helpful clarification about the idea that we can become like God was given by the Church in response to an interview by Fox News during the last election season:
"We believe that the apostle Peter's biblical reference to partaking of the divine nature and the apostle Paul's reference to being 'joint heirs with Christ' reflect the intent that children of God should strive to emulate their Heavenly Father in every way. Throughout the eternities, Mormons believe, they will reverence and worship God the Father and Jesus Christ. The goal is not to equal them or to achieve parity with them but to imitate and someday acquire their perfect goodness, love and other divine attributes."
I hope this helps sheds light on some of the nuances that are often missed when reporting on Mormonism, so that people don't assume all Mormons believe many of these tangential (and oft-debated) ideas are core elements of our faith. (See, for example, "Approaching Mormon Doctrine" on the Church website: http://newsroom.lds.org/article/approaching-mormon-doctrine)